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Terfenol-D Beam Engine

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Tue Jan 06, 2009 3:12 pm PostPost subject: Terfenol-D Beam Engine
couldbe
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The post below is from Grimer at the Steorn forum.



The simplest way of explaining how to get a continuous and increasing stream of energy out of a magnetic field is to replace the wheel doppelganger of the Rubber Band Motor with the stiff yoke and restraining struts as described previously with a simple stiff beam rotating about a centre axle

Set the magnets at top dead centre. The yoke enters the field and the two struts lengthen. Because they are constrained they deflect into a shallow inverted V shape.

http://i136.photobucket.com/albums/q171/frank260332/Lftweight.jpg


This deflection can be used to raise the weight above the inverted V. Because weight is being raised the struts will go into compression. The will push the weight upwards and push against the yoke restraint. The "push" action is shown by the arrow head on the struts. The fact the struts are in compression is symbolised by the colour red.

All very conventional so far. We are getting energy from going into the magnetic field and manifesting it as an increase in gravitational potential energy.

Now if we simply move sidewards out of the field by rotating the beam slightly then the struts assume their previous in-line shape,

http://i136.photobucket.com/albums/q171/frank260332/Escapement.jpg


the weight descends and the gravitational energy is lost. This is the conservative situation all those unimaginative forum members keep rabbiting on about.

But we decide we don't want the weight to fall down so we use one of OverConfident's escapement pins inserted into the angle of the inverted V when it is at its maximum travel - This prevents the gravitational energy from escaping when we move out.

So what happens. The struts would like to return to their on-line state but they are prevented from doing so by the escapement pin. So the struts go from a state of magnetic compression strain energy within the field to one of elastic tensile strain energy outside the field.


http://i136.photobucket.com/albums/q171/frank260332/Escapement.jpg



The beam is then rotated to the bottom dead centre and the pin is withdrawn.

The inverted V is now an upright V with the arms in tension and so the elastic strain energy pulls up the weight giving us more gravitational potential, the same amount as we got going in because of the special property of Terfenol-D.

As the beam goes down with the struts pinned the weight is providing more leverage than when it is going back up again with the struts unpinned. So the beam will accelerate until the energy input is equal to the air resistance and friction.

So let's think about what exactly is going on here.

The magnet strains the Terfenol-D struts at two different scales. It pumps tensile strain energy into the magnetic energy phase at the magnetic energy level. This is the strain energy that is released in raising the weight against the force of gravity. It also draws a balancing amount of compressive strain energy from the elastic energy phase at the elastic energy level. This is the energy which can be carried away from the magnetic field and released elsewhere.

Some people on this forum seem to be rather addicted to CoE. Well now they can fill their boots for hierarchical strain energy is conserved. Positive strain energy at one scale of the material is balanced by negative strain energy at the other. But the positive strain energy, the magnetic energy, can only be spent within the magnetic domain (cf. the ). The negative strain energy, the elastic energy can be spent anywhere (cf. the $).

By locking in the elastic energy at top dead centre and rotating the beam through 180o we can use this elastic strain energy to raise the weight against the force of gravity instead of lowering the weight in line with the force of gravity.

Thus if we understand what is going on within a material we can use both the energy going into a magnetic field and the energy coming out of a magnetic field.

The beauty of terfenol-D is that the stiffnesses of the magnetic and elastic phases are equal. This means that the amount of tensile strain energy stored in the quasi-Fluid Phase and the amount of compressive strain energy stored in the quasi-Solid phase are also equal.
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Wed Jan 07, 2009 12:47 am PostPost subject:
Harvey
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I've contacted the manufacturer of Terfenol-D. There is still a lot of 'what if' questions that need answered. I've received a 72 page pdf brief on the material and it's history. More to follow.
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Sat Jan 10, 2009 4:24 pm PostPost subject:
couldbe
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Another post from Grimer:

===
It's even simpler than one could have dared hope.

http://i136.photobucket.com/albums/q171/frank260332/Nica_1.jpg

There you are. Synthetic elastic band shortened by magnetic potential instead of heat potential.
===

A few naive questions:

When the two rotor magnets are pulled together, won't that slow down the wheel?

If they separate at the bottom of the cyle, when the escapement pin falls out (doesn't it take effort to make it fall out?) the weight will move closer to the hub and the wheel will accelerate; but isn't it just gaining back the speed it lost at the top? Where does the OU come in?

The geometry of the two rotor magnets changes at the top, when they are pulled nearer each other. They are then held in place by an escapement pin. Will the changed geometry of the rotor magnets affect how they and the stator magnets 'see' each other as the rotor magnets leave the field of the stator magnets? Is this a help or a hindrance?
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Sun Jan 11, 2009 1:28 am PostPost subject:
Harvey
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I suppose alot of that has to due with the forces involved and how they are applied. But it is unlikely that one can convert the magnetic force to stored elastic energy and exit the field unscathed. But the principle is worthy of research just in case.
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Tue Jan 13, 2009 12:28 pm PostPost subject:
couldbe
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Thanks. The reception, or lack of it, that Grimer's idea has gotten seems odd to me.

I would expect Clanzer and the other experimenters to be beavering away at building 'Grimers' ('Grimags'?), and threads sprouting about it; but aside from you, I don't think anyone has thought enough of it to even comment seriously.

Yet it is the first time, to my knowledge, that anyone has
suggested a way to have a magnet 'energize' material, so that
the energy can be expended outside the magnet's field. The idea is pregnant with possibilities.

It's more likely it won't work, but it seems odd that people are
not even discussing it.
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Wed Jan 14, 2009 10:28 am PostPost subject:
Harvey
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If you get into a boat and for 40 years the current always pushes you down stream and some fellow comes up and says hey, I have an idea that will make boats go upstream with no energy needed, most everyone will just say "yeah right, let us know how that turns out".

The problem I see with the material is that it is cost prohibitive and nearly impossible to utilize because of the microscopic movement. You need a full meter of rod just to get 1cm of movement.

The good thing, is that we should be able to model macro versions of the material using magnets and elastic substrates. We'll see.

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Wed Jan 14, 2009 12:48 pm PostPost subject:
couldbe
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Harvey wrote:


The problem I see with the material is that it is cost prohibitive and nearly impossible to utilize because of the microscopic movement. You need a full meter of rod just to get 1cm of movement.


Maybe I should have started a new thread. I was talking about Grimer's second post, where he put up a jpg showing how two ordinary magnets could be used in place of the tefrenol.

Here is the link:
http://i136.photobucket.com/albums/q171/frank260332/Nica_1.jpg
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Wed Jan 14, 2009 9:34 pm PostPost subject:
Harvey
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Yes that too has a problem. As the magnets become vertical the attraction increases due to proximity. So the energy expended to remove them from that attraction will match the energy stored in the spring. Once we fall into a hole in the bottom of a valley the only way to get out without using energy of our own is to hope the earth speeds up to offset the gravitational pull with centrifugal force. Or if we float real well we can hope the hole fills up with water. Either way it takes energy from somewhere to get out.

There is a fellow on You-Tube who is experimenting with shunts (which he calls shielding) and that raises some interesting questions with regard to ratios. If the energy reguired to slide a shunt into and out of a dual field is less than the force presented by the attraction of the magnets to themselves, then there may be way to provide an escape. Consider for example a ring magnet radially magnetized such that the outside of the ring is North and the inside is South. Now, if a reverse polarity ring of sufficiently larger size were positioned so that one ring was inside the other with a gap for a shunt to slide in between, and all 3 were on precision slides, we can see a differential in magnetic function. With both rings radially aligned they are in attraction at closest proximity with no way to get out of the hole. Let's say they have a pull force of 10Lbs each for a total of 20Lbs between them. Because of the precision involved the field is perfectly symmetrical. Now we slide a high permiability shunt between them. The two fields cancel in the shunt so there is no magnetic interaction on the shunt axially (or is there?). Sliding the outside ring away from the other two in the assembly is easier because of the shunt, but lets say the full 10Lbs of force is present between the outer ring and shunt. Next we slide the shunt away from the inner ring and it too has the full 10Lbs of force radially. Next, with the shunt out of the way the two rings pull back together. So the forces balance. Now imagine that there is a natural resonance of the sliding action. And imagine that we push the shunt such that it crosses the center from the opposite direction as the outer ring such that they pass each other over the inner ring and their momentum carries them on.

Now let's imagine that the sliders are curved and complete a circle. And suppose there are twice as many inner rings as there are outer rings and shunts. Now nothing has to stop and resonate. Now, the outer rings are stationary, the shunts rotate in one direction and the inner rings rotate in the other. Because of the ratio the inner rings always have half of their number exposed when the other half are being crossed. You now have a single rotor of a magnetic rotary engine made up of many rotors stacked.

Why wouldn't this motor design work? Wink

Cool
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